The smallest ozone hole in September 2017
10/9/2017 12:00:00 AM
According to the Copernicus Atmospheric Service, at the end of September the ozone hole area was smaller than in previous years as it was monitored by satellite and numerical models and is often attributed to its low volume because the polar vortex that is associated with higher temperatures is less stable Where the ozone hole occurs over Antarctica every September-September. The rapid loss of ozone is due to the halogenated chemical species that accumulated on the polar polar clouds in the polar vortex during Antarctica winter (June-August), where it is formed only In the coldest part When the sun begins to heat the polar vortex at the beginning of spring, where the polar clouds and halogen types, such as chlorine and bromine, are released and then released, these chemical reactions begin to drain the ozone in a very efficient way. Ozone loss occurs initially on the edge Whirlpool Because these parts receive the first exposure to the sun after the polar night during this process, the polar vortex becomes warmer and thus weaker. Ozone-rich air gradually mixes outward. This begins by closing the ozone hole in a process normally completed by mid-December. Halogenated chemicals that cause ozone depletion from long-term chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons (SFCs). Since the reduced ozone layer means that the most harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun reaches the Earth's surface, the Montreal Protocol was signed 30 years ago to control the production of CFCs. Although there is a ban on the emission of many of these compounds, they remain in the atmosphere because of their long life span of up to 100 years. The size of the ozone hole is controlled by changing weather conditions as well as the slow decline of ozone-depleting substances. The effects of the Montreal Protocol are supposed to have begun a decade ago. Researchers have observed the first signs of ozone-layer recovery. Typical projections (based on values ??dating back to the late 1970s) suggest that the total closure of the ozone hole will occur around the middle of this century.
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Global Meteorology has launched the Year of Polar Prediction
5/21/2017 12:00:00 AM
In a move to bridge the current gaps in the ability of polar forecasts with an emphasis on disaster risk reduction, on Monday, May 15, the World Meteorological Organization launched the Year of Polar Prediction YOPP, an internationally coordinated campaign to meet the challenges of change. Especially since according to WMO data there is a paucity of information on operations in the North and South Poles as well as a lack of monitoring capacity.  As is known, dramatic dramatic changes in weather, climate and ice in the poles cause increased human activity that contributes its own share of risks to the environment and society, including indigenous livelihoods. The aim of Polar Prediction Year is to increase the organization's predictability not only at the climate level but also in weather and climate change, according to Thomas Young, a professor of polar and marine research at the World Meteorological Organization. Providing monitoring and prediction systems Yong said to the United Nations site that one of the main objectives is disaster risk reduction, pointing out that there are a lot of ongoing work in the distant latitudes of the southern hemisphere, primarily research and tourism, these activities play an important role in the pole But there is also shipping and other activities, it is about disaster risk reduction and also the development of disaster management capacity when it occurs. The impact of global warming on polar regions is seen in other parts of the world, in terms of rising sea levels and changes in weather and climate patterns, Young said. The plan is to be implemented mid-year to mid-2019 by launching aerial balloons from meteorological stations, coordinated aircraft campaigns and satellite missions and establishing new automatic air stations in various polar locations, in an effort to promote understanding of the North Pole and provide Better future monitoring and prediction systems.
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Science solves the mystery of the rose lake in Australia
4/17/2017 12:00:00 AM
A lake in Melbourne, Australia, has turned pink, causing confusion and euphoria for online newscasters, but local residents have not been shocked. Salt Lake, located in Westgate Park, has turned pink several times over the past decade, making local people get used to it. But what is the secret behind this strange transformation of the color of the lake? Victoria Gardens officials told the media that there is nothing wrong with the lake where there are no industrial waste and no leaks of toxic substances can cause water color change.  However, there are several factors such as high salinity, low precipitation, high temperatures and combined sunlight have all played a role in lake color change. They called everyone to enjoy the view of the lake but warned against direct contact with the water. According to Mark Norman, a leading environmental scientist, water itself is not dangerous. However, there are a few unlucky people who have felt pain in the eye because salt crystals are similar to what happens if brushed with brine. Norman also said there was a high concentration of green algae at the bottom of the lake. The presence of a single cell called Dunaliella, the main culprit in lake color change, was discovered every summer. Logically, the decrease in water volume in the summer results in increased salt concentration in the lake, which is due to its natural color in winter and autumn. In 2013, a study was carried out by the Extreme Micro Biome Project to solve the lake puzzle, using scientific methods and methods, and collecting samples from several sites of the lake. They concluded that algae, bacteria and bacteria are abundant in this exotic environment. (Dunaliella Salina) is responsible for producing a pink color called carotenoids. In other studies, she said that in addition to the single cell (Dunaliella) there are microbes producing a similar dye (Salinibacter) and these microbes are the reason for the pink color of the lake.
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The world is getting warmer each year thanks to climate change
3/15/2017 12:00:00 AM
The world is getting warmer every year, thanks to climate change - but where exactly most of that heat here is a surprise. Scientists have announced that 2016 is the hottest record, it is easy to forget that every extra warmth in the air accounts only a small fraction of the heat caused by greenhouse gas emissions in fact and gets more than 90 percent of it in the ocean and now scientists believe that it may Calculates how far the ocean has improved in the past few decades. Kevin Turnberry, a scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, said the new value was far higher than previously estimated. Compared to the IPCC's global warming estimates, new values ??are about 13 percent greater "which really make this paper different from its predecessors," Turnberry said. This is the result of a new methodology for estimating ambient ocean temperatures, A series of steps. In the past decades, there have been many challenges associated with changes in temperature monitoring in the ocean before 2000 or so, and most monitoring tools would have been deployed from ships, this means that scientists only get the most reliable data for parts of the world that fall on Length of main shipping routes. In the last 15 years, Argo network scientists have developed a system of free drift devices designed to adjust buoyancy, so they can sink several thousand meters in the sea, collect measurements, and then rise back up to the surface. There are now about 3500 of these devices deployed throughout the world's oceans, leading to much better dispersion of observations. The new study, which was led by Lijing Cheng of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and included other scientists from that institution, from the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, uses a new methodology to use both recent Argo measurements and past observations of ships to produce a continuous series of Estimates 1960-2015. The scientists included an updated database of measurements before some of the prejudices in Argo were corrected, as well as information from climatic models, the extension of observations in ocean conditions taken at specific locations on large areas of the sea, and then compared the recent Argo data with measurements that were Created using a new methodology I found that the method produces true results to life. The results indicate that the ocean has been absorbed as much heat as previous research has indicated. In fact, according to Turnberry, the new estimates help explain the observations of sea level rise that scientists have been finding difficult to calculate yet. A certain percentage of sea level rise can be attributed to the expansion of ocean water, caused by rising water temperatures, while the rest comes from the melting of glaciers, scientists have good estimates of how much ice melts in the ocean. The study also suggests that excess heat is not evenly stored throughout the ocean. The Atlantic and southern oceans, in particular, are the largest new heat tanks, and the results indicate, storage is about 59 percent of the heat despite accounting for less than half of the world's oceans. The system is a kind of giant ocean conveyor belt that runs warm water from the equator toward the poles, where it cools, dips into the ocean floor and flows back in the direction The other .. This system helps both heat transfer around the world, which is evident in the process of the coup in both the Atlantic and Southern Ocean waters. While the new findings emphasize the importance of the ocean as a buffer zone for climate change - otherwise, much of that heat remains in the atmosphere or on land - certainly not without consequences. Ocean warming is believed to be one of the main causes of global coral bleaching that has occurred around the world over the past several years, in conjunction with El Niño in 2015. It remains unclear how other living organisms can be affected, but many marine animals thrive better within certain temperature ranges. Many marine biologists believe that continued warming, along with other climate-related changes such as ocean acidification, may force certain species to migrate to cooler or deeper regions in the future. The warming of the ocean surface can also lead to "dead spots" in the ocean - places where layers of warm water stumble over layers of cooler water, Turnberry said. When this class division occurs, it can become more difficult for water to mix and butter as they usually do, a process that helps to stimulate the nutrients and oxygen that are vital to marine organisms.
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